: The list of questions for preparation of students for the final modular control
The module 1. General pathological  processes
The substantial module 1. Introduction. Morphology of damage and destruction of cells and tissues.

Pathological anatomy as a science, range of applied medicine and a subject. Problems of pathological anatomy.
Levels of research of structural bases of illnesses. The object and methods of pathological anatomy research.
The basic stages of development of pathological anatomy. The contribution of native scientists to development of world pathomorphology.
Concept about an ultrastractural pathology of a cell.
Definition of concept of "degeneration" (metabolism disturbance), the cause of degenerations. The pathogenesis and mechanisms of degenerations.
Classification of degenerations. The morphogenesis of intracellular protein accumulation. The morphogenesis and morphology of intracellular fatty accumulation (lipidoses). The morphogenesis and morphology of intracellular carbohydrate change.
Stromal-vascular (extracellular) protein changes, types, morphology, mechanisms, the causes, outcomes.
Stromal-vascular infiltration of fat, types, morphology.
Stromal-vascular carbohydrate changes, classification, morphology.
The causes of damage of cytoplasmic membrane. Kinds and consequences of damage of cytoplasmic membrane.
The causes of damage of mitochondrions. Structural changes of mitochondrions.
Morphological changes endoplasmic reticulum in conditions of a pathology. Morphological exhibitings disturbances of secretory function of apparatus Golgi.
Lysosomic diseases. Peroxisome diseases. Pathological changes of non membranous organellas: ribosomes, microtubules, intermediate filaments.
Reversible and irreversible damages of nucleus. Damage of a mitosis, the causes, kinds.
Definition of the mixed dystrophies, their classification. Classification of hemoglobinogenic pigments. Kinds of disturbances of an exchange.
Disturbances of lipidogenic pigments metabolism.
Nucleoproteins metabolism disturbances.
Calcium metabolism disturbances, kinds of a calcification, their cause and morphology.
Definition of a necrosis, its cause, kinds, depending on the mechanism of action of the pathogenic factor.
Morphological signs of a necrosis. Early morphological and histochemical changes.
Morphological signs of a necrosis in nucleus. Morphological signs of a necrosis in a cytoplasma and intercellular substance.
Clinico-morphological forms of a necrosis. The coagulative necrosis, the causes of development, type, micro-, macroscopic changes in fields of a necrosis.
The enzymatic and non enzymatic fatty necrosis, localization, the causes. 
The gangrene, definition, classification. The dry gangrene, localization, macroscopic changes of necrotizing tissues. The wet gangrene, localization, the causes of originating, morphological changes.
A bedsore, features of development, localization.
olliquative (wet) necrosis, a place of localization, macro,-microscopical changes. The outcomes of a necrosis.
The apoptosis, definition, morphological exhibitings of an apoptosis.
Influence of external factors on a regulation of an apoptosis.
Categories of a self-contained apoptosis.
Features of the general death, mechanisms and terms of their development.


The substantial module 2. Disturbances of blood and lymph circulation. Inflammation.
The general representation about an edema, composition of an intercellular fluid, classification, localization of accumulation of fluid. The local edema, its regulation, the mechanism of development, kinds. The general edema, its types and mechanisms of originating.
The exicosis of an organism, mechanisms of development, a degree of an exicosis.
Types of the general arterial hyperemia. The local arterial hyperemia, kinds, the causes, morphology.
The general venous hyperemia, kinds, the causes of development, changes in organs.
The general anemia, classification, morphological changes in organs.
The blood viscosity, the causes, morphological changes in organs.
The hemodilution, the cause, value.
The bleeding, definition, the causes of development, classification.
The shock, definition, classification. Stages of development of a shock, morphological changes.
Morphological changes in a kidney and lungs, in a liver, a myocardium, a stomach and an intestine at a shock.
Changes in lungs and a liver at a chronic venous plethora.
The infarct, definition, the causes. Kinds of infarcts under the form, colour. Mechanisms of development and morphological changes in zone of an infarct.
The myocardial infarction, localization, morphology, outcomes. The outcomes of an infarct.
Disturbance of lymph circulation, the cause, classification. Acute and chronic local lymphedema.
The hemorrhage, kinds, morphology.
Pathomorphology, consequences of a stasis.
The trombosis, definition, the causes and mechanisms of a thrombogenesis. Morphology and kinds of thrombuses. The favorable outcomes of a trombosis.
Definition  of a DIC syndrome, the cause of originating. Stages of a DIC syndrome, morphological characters.
Definition of an embolism, kinds of embolus. Paths of circulation of emboli.
Morphology of a thromboembolism of a pulmonary artery and vessels of the systemic circulation.
Definition of an inflammation, an etiology. Morphological characters of an inflammation. Morphological changes at alteration, exudation and proliferation.
Classification of an inflammation on morphology, course depending on a reactivity of an organism. Forms of an exudative inflammation. A serous inflammation, an etiology, localization, morphology, outcomes.
The fibrinous inflammation: an etiology, localization of a crupous inflammation, morphology, outcomes.
The purulent inflammation: an etiology, forms, localization, morphology, outcomes.
Dependent forms of an inflammation. The catarrhal inflammation; an etiology, localization, kinds, morphology, outcomes. The hemorrhagic and putride inflammation: an etiology, morphology, outcomes.
The general characteristic of a productive inflammation, classification.
The interstitial inflammation, morphology, an outcome. Granulomatous inflammation, definition of a granuloma, an etiology, stages of a granuloma. The productive inflammation with formation of polyps and acuminate condylomas; localization, an etiology, consequences. 
The morphological characteristics of specific granulomas caused by a mycobacterium tuberculosis, by treponema pallidum, by a micobacterium of a lepra, by a respiratory scleroma, by an actinomycosis, by a sape.
Outcomes of a productive inflammation, concept "cirrhosis" and "sclerosis".
Morphology of the acute and chronic general lymphedema.

The substantial module 3. Immunopathologycal processes. Regeneration and adaptation, compensation.

Primary organs of an immunogenesis, their role in development of immune responses. The secondary organs of an immunogenesis, their role in development of immune responses. Types of lymphocytes, their localization in organs of an immunogenesis, functional features.
Types of immune reactions.
Definition of immunopathologycal processes, classification. Disturbance of the immunogenesis, bound to a pathology of a thymus and a peripheral lymphoid tissue.
Mechanisms of development of reactions of a hypersensitivity of the immediate and delayed type.
Classification of hypersensitivity reactions. The morphological characteristic of reaction of hypersensitivity of the delayed type. The morphological characteristic of reaction of immediate hypersensitivity.
The morphological characteristic of reaction of a transplant rejection.
Definition and classification of autoimmune diseases. The characteristic of organo-specific autoimmune diseases. Diseases with autoimmune disorders, mechanisms of appearance of autoantigenes.
The amyloidosis, chemical composition and physical properties of an amyloid. Classification of an amyloidosis. The characteristic of a primary and secondary amyloidosis. The hereditary (genetical) amyloidosis. The localized and senile amyloidosis.
Kinds of an amyloidosis depending on specificity of protein fibrils. Methods micro-and macroscopic revealing of an amyloid. Outward of organs at an amyloidosis, a consequence.
Classification of immunodeficiency states. Classification of primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Combined immunodeficiency syndromes, kinds, a state of organs of an immunogenesis, clinical exhibitings.
Syndromes of a failure of cellular immunodefence, a state of organs of an immunogenesis, clinical exhibitings. Syndromes of a failure of humoral immunodefence, a state of organs of an immunogenesis, clinical exhibitings.
The causes of development of secondary immunodeficiency states.
Definition of regeneration, classification. The characteristic of phisiological regeneration. The regulation and phases regeneration process.
Kinds of reparative regeneration. The characteristic of complete regeneration. The characteristic of incomplete regeneration.
Pathological regeneration, conditions of originating, kinds.
Regeneration of blood.
Regeneration blood and lymphatic vessels.
Regeneration connective and fatty tissues. Pathological regeneration of a connective tissue.
The regeneration of bone tissue, conditions of regeneration, the characteristic of uncomplicated osteal fracture. The morphological characteristic of the secondary bone union.
Regeneration of a cartilaginous (chondral) tissue. Regeneration of epithelium. Regeneration of the brain and spinal cord. Regeneration of peripheral nerves.
Kinds of a wound healing. Healing by first and second intention.
Concept of compensation and the adaptation. Stages and morphological changes of compensatory process. The hypertrophy and hyperplasia, definition, classification.
Working (compensatory) hypertrophy, the causes of development. The characteristic of a hypertrophy of heart, the cause, macro-, microscopical changes.
The vicarious hypertrophy, conditions of development. Neurohumoral hypertrophy and  hyperplasia.
The atrophy, definition, classification. Kinds of the general pathological atrophy, morphological changes in organs, outward of patients.
Kinds of a local pathological atrophy, the cause, morphology.
Definition of the organization, an encapsulation, morphology.
The metaplasia and dysplasia, definition, the morphological characteristic. Degrees of a dysplasia.
Regeneration of smooth and sceletal muscles.
True and pseudohypertrophy, morphological changes in organs.

The substantial module 4. Tumours.  
 Tumours, definition, modern theories of a carcinogenesis. Mechanisms of blastomatous action of pathogenic agents.
The morphogenesis of a tumour, morphogenetic variants of originating of a tumour. The structure of a tumour.
Rate of growth of tumours.
Atypism of tumours, definition, kinds. Morphological peculiarities of tissue and cellular atypism. Pretumor (precancerous) states and changes, morphology. 
The metastasizing: kinds, laws, mechanisms. Relapse, definition.
Modern classification of tumours. Morphological features of benign tumours. Morphological features of malignant tumours.
The general characteristic and the nomenclature of tumours from mesenchyma. Benign and malignant tumours from a connective tissue.
Benign and malignant tumours from a muscular tissue. Benign and malignant tumours from blood and limphatic vessels.
Benign osteogenic and cartilagogenic tumours.
Classification and morphological features of tumours of the central nervous system. Benign neuroectodermal tumours.
Low-differentiated and embryonal neuroectodermal tumours.
Benign and malignant tumours of meninxes.
Mature and immature tumours of peripheral nerves.
Benign and malignant tumours of sympatic ganglions.
The nomenclature of tumours which develop from melanogenic tissue. Nevi - definition, classification, morphology. The melanoma, stages of development. Morphology of melanomas of different types.
The nomenclature of tumours from epithelium. Morphological features of tumours from epithelium without specific localization. Benign and malignant tumours from a cover epithelium.
Benign and malignant tumours of a liver.
Malignant tumours of a uterus, kinds, morphology
Tumours of salivary glands and oral cavity.
Features of tumor growth at children in comparison with adults. Classification of tumours of children's age.
Disontogenetic tumours at children. Theories of development of teratomas, histological variants of teratomas. The morphological structure of mature and immature teratomas. Morphological features of hamartomas and hamartoblastomas.
Tumours at children that arise from embryonal (fetal; embryonic) cambial tissues in CNS, sympatic ganglions and adrenal glands.
Hamartomas and hamartoblastomas of a vascular origin. Hamartomas and hamartoblastomas of a muscular tissue.
Hamartoblastomas of an inner organs: nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), hepatoblastoma.
Definition of the teratomas, typical localization. The sacrococcygeal teratoma and teratoblastoma. Features of a morphological structure. Teratomas of ovaries and testis.
Benign and malignant tumours at children who growth as tumours at adults.
Benign tumours from fatty tissues. Malignant tumours from fatty tissues.
Benign tumours of the stomach and intestine from Kulchitsky cells. Organo-specific tumours of a thyroid gland, a kidney, a skin: benign and malignant.
Organo-specific hormonal-active tumours of adrenals: classification, morphological features.
Benign and malignant tumours of the mammary gland.